UML Tutorial

The Unified Modeling Language (UML) has quickly become the de-facto standard for building Object-Oriented software. This tutorial provides a technical overview of the 13 UML diagrams supported by Enterprise Architect. UML 2 semantics are explained in detail in the new UML 2.0 tutorial.

Firstly... What is UML?

The Object Management Group (OMG) specification states:

"The Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a graphical language for visualizing, specifying, constructing, and documenting the artifacts of a software-intensive system. The UML offers a standard way to write a system's blueprints, including conceptual things such as business processes and system functions as well as concrete things such as programming language statements, database schemas, and reusable software components."

The important point to note here is that UML is a 'language' for specifying and not a method or procedure. The UML is used to define a software system; to detail the artifacts in the system, to document and construct - it is the language that the blueprint is written in. The UML may be used in a variety of ways to support a software development methodology (such as the Rational Unified Process) - but in itself it does not specify that methodology or process.

UML defines the notation and semantics for the following domains:

  • The User Interaction or Use Case Model - describes the boundary and interaction between the system and users. Corresponds in some respects to a requirements model.
  • The Interaction or Communication Model - describes how objects in the system will interact with each other to get work done.
  • The State or Dynamic Model - State charts describe the states or conditions that classes assume over time. Activity graphs describe the workflows the system will implement.
  • The Logical or Class Model - describes the classes and objects that will make up the system.
  • The Physical Component Model - describes the software (and sometimes hardware components) that make up the system.
  • The Physical Deployment Model - describes the physical architecture and the deployment of components on that hardware architecture.

The UML also defines extension mechanisms for extending the UML to meet specialized needs (for example Business Process Modeling extensions).

Part 2 of this tutorial expands on how you use the UML to define and build actual systems.

See also Business Process Modeling (pdf).

If you have any suggestions or comments on the material here, please forward your thoughts to